Chickasaw Bayou, MS
December 26-29, 1862
Grant’s Operations against Vicksburg
In November 1862,
Major General Ulysses S. Grant, commanding
Union forces in Mississippi, began a campaign to capture the city of
split his 70,000-man army into two wings—one commanded by himself and one
commanded by Major General William T. Sherman.
planned to advance along the Mississippi Central Railroad in the northern part
of the state and send Sherman and a
combined army-navy force downriver against Vicksburg.
seven gunboats and fifty-nine troop transports arrived above Vicksburg on
After advancing up the Yazoo River,
the transports unloaded 32,000 Union troops north of the city.
Facing the Federal advance was a
formidable maze of both natural and man-made defenses. First was a thick
entanglement of trees, which was broken intermittently by swampland. Chickasaw
Bayou also acted as a potential barrier to Sherman's men because it was
parallel to the planned line of advance and could interrupt communication
between units. Furthermore, the Confederates had formed a defensive barrier
using felled trees.
Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman
Gen. John C. Pemberton
Right Wing, XIII Army Corps
Department of Mississippi and
East Louisiana (15,000)
On December 26, 1862, three Union divisions, under
Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, disembarked at
Johnson's Plantation on the Yazoo River to approach the Vicksburg defenses from
the northeast while a fourth landed farther upstream on the 27th.
On the 27th, the Federals pushed their lines
forward through the swamps toward Walnut Hills, which were strongly defended.
On the 28th, several futile attempts were made to
get around these defenses.
On December 29th, Sherman
ordered a frontal assault which was repulsed with heavy casualties.
withdrew. This Confederate victory frustrated Grant's
attempts to take Vicksburg by direct approach.
1 National Park
- having a decisive influence on a
campaign and a direct impact on the course of the war
having a direct and decisive influence on their campaign
having observable influence on the
outcome of a campaign
having a limited influence on the
outcome of their campaign or operation but achieving or affecting important
3 Casualties are
someone killed, injured, wounded, captured or missing.