Sand Creek, CO
[The Battle at Sand Creek, Colorado by O. Y. Rookstool - Courtesy
Sand Creek Campaign 
Col. John Chivington
Black Kettle, Cheyenne
Third Colorado Regiment
(approx. 700 men)
500 Cheyenne and a few Arapahos
Scattered Indian raids had caused much ill-will
between the white settlers and the Native Americans.
In the autumn, Territorial
(Colorado) officers had offered a vague amnesty if Indians reported to army
Black Kettle with many Cheyenne and a few
Arapahos, believing themselves to be protected, established a winter camp about
40 miles from Fort Lyon.
On November 29, Col. John
Chivington, who advocated Indian extermination, arrived near the
camp, having marched there from Fort Lyon.
In spite of the American flag and a white flag
flying over the camp, the troops attacked, killing and mutilating about 200 of
the Indians, two-thirds of whom were women and children.
- having a decisive influence on a
campaign and a direct impact on the course of the war
having a direct and decisive influence on their campaign
having observable influence on the
outcome of a campaign
having a limited influence on the
outcome of their campaign or operation but achieving or affecting important
2 Casualties are
someone killed, injured, wounded, captured or missing.